Biotin Benefits: Biotin is more commonly known as Vitamin H or vitamin B7. It is a component of the B complex group of vitamins. Generally, vitamin B or biotin converts the food, especially carbohydrates into glucose. And we know that glucose is used to produce energy in our body. We considered all these B vitamins as B complex, which helps to metabolize fats and protein. It is necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help to maintain the proper function of the nervous system.
Our body requires biotin to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. It is also often recommended for strengthening hair and nails, and we can found it in many hair and skin cosmetic products.
But biotin is a water-soluble, means that the body can’t store it. Therefore we have to take biotin-rich foods regularly to avoid deficiency. However, bacteria present in the intestine can make it. It is also available in a number of foods in small quantities. It is also important for normal embryonic growth, making it a vital nutrient for pregnant women.
Symptoms of deficient in biotin include hair loss, dry scaly skin, cracking in the corners of the mouth (called cheilitis), swollen and painful tongue that is magenta in color (glossitis), dry eyes, loss of hunger,Biotin benefits feeling fatigue, insomnia, and also depression. For a long period of time who have been on parenteral nutrition — nutrition given intravenously, those taking antiseizure medication or antibiotics, and people with conditions like Crohn’s disease that make it hard to absorb nutrients, they have mostly suffered from the deficiency of biotin. Smokers, alcoholics, pregnant women, and patients with inflammatory bowel diseases infect more if they have biotin deficiency.
Biotin surprising benefits–
1) Biotin is important for Energy Metabolism
Biotin acts as a coenzyme for carboxylases, the enzymes that help in the metabolism process of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. All these are necessary for energy production in our body. These enzymes are very much essential for the following processes:
⦁ Gluconeogenesis, in this process non-carbohydrate sources such as amino acid produces glucose.
⦁ Energy production in the cell.
⦁ The use of branched-chain amino acids like leucine, isoleucine, and valine for production of neurotransmitter and energy.
⦁ fatty acids Synthesis and breakdown for energy production.
⦁ Insulin secretion.
⦁ In case our body has Insufficient biotin levels, then it slows down the metabolism process and leads to fatigue, digestive problems, and weight gain.
2) Biotin is beneficial For Type 2 Diabetes
By increasing the production of insulin, Biotin helps lower blood sugar levels which help in enhancing glucose contents in muscle cells and also stimulating glucokinase, which is an enzyme in the liver that helps in the synthesis of glycogen.
If patients having type 2 diabetes take biotin supplements daily, it decreases fasting blood sugar concentrations by an average of approximately 45 %.
But, high doses can improve symptoms of diabetic nephropathy, which is a nerve damage condition commonly exhibited in diabetic patients. So be cautious about that.
3) Biotin Lowers Risk of having Heart Disease
For normal fat metabolism,it is needed , which is crucial for maintaining heart and blood vessel health.
It combines with chromium and help to reduce risk of heart disease by increasing high-density protein(LDL)and increasing high-density lipoprotein(HDL) levels,especially who has diabetis as well as heart disease.
Pharmacological doses of biotin (15000 mcg/day) are also effective in lowering concentrations of blood triglyceride in patients with high triglyceride levels .
4) Biotin Promotes Brain Function and Prevents physiological Decline
Biotin is needed for myelin sheath formation. It is a fatty element that surrounds nerves and helps in nerve impulse conduction. Likewise, its deficiency can delay myelination also .
Multiple sclerosis is one type of autoimmune disorder caused due to damage and loss of myelin. Its role is to do synthesis of fatty acid and production of energy (both are needed for myelin repair and axonal survival), it has been examined that it is effective in limiting or reversing multiple sclerosis-related problems.
In fact, from some investigations,it has found that high-dose intake of biotin tablets was able to reverse disease advancement and improve symptoms in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis .
However, although these results are nearly right, study is currently limited and more large-scale clinical trials are also needed to fully assess the potential disease-modifying mechanism of high-dose biotin.
Other neurological symptoms like seizures, lack of muscle coordination, learning disabilities, hallucinations, depression(hyperlink), and lethargy all are caused by its deficiency. Most of these conditions can be solved by biotin vitamins .
If we take high-dose biotin supplementation (5-10 mg/kg/day),that also effective in treating biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease, which is a rare brain metabolic condition characterized by seizures, confusion, and abnormal coordination..
5) For Healthy Immune System Biotin is needed
For white blood cell development and its deficiency, Biotin is really essential and it can cause impaired immune function and also it can increase the risk of infection.
It expands the production of Th1 cytokines like IL-1β and IFN-γ. These are required for bringing out an immune response which enables to fight against bacteria and viral infections.
Insufficient amount of biotin can decrease antibody synthesis, T cell decay, and also a lower amount of spleen cells and T cells in both animals as well as in humans.
Its deficiency also can decrease the rates of cellular proliferation and it may do some adverse effects on immune function.
There is an enzyme known as biotinidase, which helps to recycle biotin and it is Biotin benefits useful for chronic vaginal candidiasis. From the very beginning in every 123 people is believed to be the deficiency of biotinidase, especially women with chronic vaginal candidiasis may be responsive to biotin treatment.
6) Biotin covers up Inflammation and May decrease Allergic Disorders
Researchers found from a study of mouse models and human white blood cells that biotin deficiency may expand the production of pro inflammatory cytokines and provoke inflammatory conditions.
They also find out that biotin-deficient mice, which have Biotin benefits nickel allergies, biotin supplementation decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and developed allergic inflammation. They also suggested that it also works against inflammatory and allergic diseases in humans.
Biotin deficiency decrease NF-κB activity, which is activated because of this.
7) Biotin Promotes Skin, Hair, and Nail Health
Many skin infections such as seborrheic dermatitis (cradle cap) and eczema are caused by Biotin deficiency.
This may be connected to biotin’s roles synthesis of fatty acid and metabolism, which is very much important for healthy skin.
Skin cells need extra protection against damage and water loss because the skin is constantly exposed to outdoor, so skin is especially dependent on the production of fat and for fat production Biotin is an essential source.
Insufficient amount of biotin can also lead to hair loss, which can be reduced with supplementation. Also, some studies have found that biotin increases hair growth, especially in women, those are facing thinning hair problem and also hair related issues. But there are fewer proofs to support that it promotes hair growth.
Biotin may also enhance the quality of brittle nails. And it is proved that they get firmer, harder, and thicker nails after biotin treatment.
8) Biotin May Prevent Birth-related Defects
During the pregnancy period, biotin is very much essential from the initial growth of the fetus, so there is minimal biotin deficiency because of its increased demand.
In animals also, we can see a subclinical level of biotin deficiency can cause cleft palate and limb abnormalities.
It experiments during the pregnancy period, its deficiency increases the risk of birth defects and changing fat metabolism and increasing genomic instability both of them lead to chromosomal abnormalities development and also fatal malformations.
Biotin depletion In human Biotin benefits embryonic palatal (roof of the mouth) stem cells, suppress production of carboxylase and cellular proliferation, resulting in that lower levels of biotin may delay the embryonic palate growth leads to cleft palate development.
However, it is very much necessary for doing research on biotin so that we can solve out the birth-related issues because of biotin deficiency.
9) Biotin May Protect Against Cancer
Biotin covalently binds together to form histones, which is DNA binding proteins that enable fold and package DNA into chromatin. For cellular proliferation, gene silencing, and DNA repair and stability, the inclusion of biotin to histones plays a crucial role.
Genomic instability and abnormal gene expression (cellular production)cause inadequate histone biotinylation because of low levels of biotin and thus increases the risks of cancer. These effects have been shown to increase cancer risk in fruit flies and also human cancer cell studies.
However, from the beginning, it is studied that higher levels of biotin (up to 600 micrograms) were really utilized to increase genomic instability and damage, indicating that Biotin benefits DNA stabilizing effects may be dose-dependent.
But, the connection between histone biotinylation and cancer risk in humans remains to be investigated.
Genetics of Biotin
BTD Gene – The Enzyme that Reuses Biotin:
The BTD gene encodes biotinidase, it is one type of enzyme that reuses biotin. Biotinidase acts as a transport system and transport biotin that is free through the bloodstream and binds biotin to other associated proteins. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BTD genome has the following components:
- RS2455826 – This variety of gene is linked with an increased risk of psoriasis.
- RS7651039 – The “C” allele is linked with a higher risk of coronary heart disease.
- SLC5A6 Gene – The helps in Transport Biotin Into the Cells:
- The SLC5A6 gene encodes the sodium -depends upon multivitamin transporter that helps transport biotin into cells.
HLCS Gene – The Enzyme that Adds Biotin to Other Proteins:
This gene encodes holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS), an Biotin benefits enzyme that adds biotin molecules to form histones and carboxylase enzymes. Mutations in this gene can lessen biotin binding to other molecules and decrease actions of carboxylase, resulting in impaired protein(hyperlink), fat, and carbohydrate metabolism. For the production of genes and normal development, they can also play an important role.
Biotin covalently binds to form histones with the enzyme HLCS and it is associated with gene silencing, DNA repair, chromatin structure, and transposon repression.
Pharmacokinetics of Biotin
Biotin supplements are completely absorbed orally even at high pharmacological doses (81.9 micromoles taken orally or 18.4 micromoles taken intravenously).
It is absorbed by a sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in the small as well as large intestines.
After transport from the intestines travels into the systemic circulation, biotin is taken up by the liver and finally crosses the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system.
After oral ingestion by humans, Biotin benefits single high doses of biotin (600 micrograms and 900 micrograms) are extracted from the circulation leading to an increase of urinary excretion. Thus, it is recommended that for prolonged maintenance of blood biotin levels, lower doses (300 micrograms) each day for a week.
Normally half of the absorbed biotin undergoes metabolism leads to bisnorbiotin and biotin sulfoxide prior to excretion. Biotin, bisnorbiotin, and biotin sulfoxide are present in molar ratios of nearly 3:2:1 in human urine and blood.
The excretion half-life time of biotin is approximately 1 hour, 50 minutes.
Side Effects and Contraindications:
For doses up to 300 mg/day orally and 20 mg intravenously, it is normally considered safe and having no toxic elements.
Because of its water-soluble property, if there is an overdose of biotin the excess amounts are excreted in the urine.
High-dose biotin supplementation may alter thyroid test results and imitate the laboratory pattern of Grave’s disease.
For binding with the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in the intestine, Lipoic acid competes with biotin, so long-term use of lipoic acid could result in depleted biotin levels.
Similarly, large doses of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) have the capacity to compete with biotin for absorption by the SMVT.
Prolonged usage of antibiotics like tetracycline and sulfonamides Biotin benefits can decrease levels of it because they kill biotin-producing bacteria in the intestines.
Furthermore, a few anticonvulsants like primidone and carbamazepine decrease biotin absorption. Utilization of Chronic anticonvulsant can also increase biotin breakdown.